# VPSIG9.60 Do not remove or modify this line, otherwise this file will not be recognized as a vortex project file
[General Project Information]
ProjectTitle="Bairds Tapir PHVA Baseline" # Project Title
ProjectPath="Cü\Program Files\Vortex\tapirs" # Project Working Path
ProjectNotes="Baseline model data compiled at the Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA) Workshop, held at Belize Zoo, 15-19 August 2005. Workshop organized by the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group. For detailed information about the base line model and parameters used, please consult the report."
Users={"Phil Miller"}
NumScene="1" # Number of Scenarios (Do not modify !!!)
SpecialOptions0="0" # Show Symbols option
SpecialOptions1="0" # Translocate option
SpecialOptions1txt=Empty # Translocate option
SpecialOptions2="0" # Exclude last pop option
SpecialOptions3="0" # No dispersal into saturated pop option
SpecialOptions4="0" # Extinction = Decline option
SpecialOptions5="0" # Output all animals option
SpecialOptions6="0" # Census file option
SpecialOptions6txt=Empty # Census file option
SpecialOptions7="0" # Clear Lines option
SpecialOptions8="0" # Max K option
SpecialOptions8txt=Empty # Max K option
SpecialOptionsUndoc=Empty # Undocumented options
[Project Report]
ReportLocation="Bairds Tapir PHVA Baseline_report.rtf" # File path of the report
[ST Data]
ST.NumItems="0" # Number of items in the ST Scheme
[1 Scenario Notes]
ScenarioNotes={"In developing our baseline model, we intend to simulate a Baird’s tapir population that is free of human interference. In other words, we want to observe the growth dynamics of a population that is able to grow at the rate that is expected based on our understanding of the basic biology of the species.";Empty;"We opted to use a time span of 100 years because it is far enough into the future so as to decrease the chances of omitting a yet unknown event, but also not too short to fail to observe a slowly developing event.";Empty;"Simple single population system to start our analysis.";Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: "Participants decided that inbreeding depression should be included because they are the default values, however there is no evidence that it should be important.";"Based on Ralls et al. (1988) captive data...";"Also based on Ralls et al. (1988)";"Because of the tapir's longevity and long in between gestation periods it is believed that there is no correlation between EV in reproduction and survival.";Empty;"The baseline population suffers no catastrophes.";Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: "Information in so far indicates that tapirs are monogamous species.";"Based on zoo data, thanks to Joe Romano.";"Based on zoo data, thanks to Joe Romano.";"According to Robinson and Redford (1986), the average age of last reproduction for tapirs is 23.5 years. The only available data is on longevity, with 29.3 years as the record from the Dallas zoo (Yin 1967). As a conservative estimate, the wild tapirs are modeled to reproduce up until 20 years of age.";"Perissodactyls in general produce only one offspring/pregnancy. Tapirs have a gestation period of about 401 days (13.4 months), range from 390 to 407, and rarely do females give birth to more than one young per gestation (Read 1986ý Barongi 1986). Adult females generally produce one calf, and rarely two, every two years (Anderson 1982ý Lekagul and McNeely 1977). Even though there is at least one record of twins born in a zoo (Dr. Vellayan pers. comm.), tapirs produce 1 calf per parturition.";"There is no a priori evidence to suggest a skewed sex ratio at birth. Field data from Corcovado National Park shows a larger (although not significant) percent of males (Charles Foerster, pers. obs.). Zoo records from the Zoo Negara in Malaysia show birth rates with a 50% sex ratio (Dr. Vellayan pers. comm.).";Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: "Data on gestation and lactation comes mainly from Read (1986), which would suggest that inter-birth interval in captivity is 18.5 months (554 daysý range = 496 to 602) (or 50% of females available in any given year). Other zoo evidence and field observations in Corcovado National Park (Charles Foerster, pers. obs.) indicate that females may become pregnant while lactating, which can reduce the interval to as few as 16 months (4 female Baird’s tapirs, 4-9 years observations). Further, some females may lose their offspring during lactation, stillbirth, or neonatal deaths and come into estrus soon afterwards. The model assumes 45% females reproducing in a given year to account for an inter-birth interval of approximately 16 months.";Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: "The data available on mortality rates for Baird’s tapir in the wild is limited to Charles Foerster’s study in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica. Females from 2 to 3 have a smaller mortality rate than males because males display what is called risk-prone behavior, which seems related to male-biased dispersal. We also increased adult mortality from 5-7% to bring down stoc-r to a level more like what is expected for tapirs. It is now around 3.5% which is within the 3-4% range expected for such a large mammal.";Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: "The participants believe that on average only about 90% of the males would be available for reproduction at any given year, because dispersing males usually aren't socially or physically fit to be able to reproduce (i.e. live in marginal poor territories, with poor nutritions, high incidence of parasites, and low probability of encountering females.";Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: Empty;"Our baseline population model uses an arbitrary initial population size of 100 individuals and a carrying capacity of 200. In subsequent models, because of the extensive distribution and the many countries treated within this workshop, we modeled several initial population sizes and carrying capacities based on what workshop participants thought plausible.";Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty: Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty} # Scenario Notes in RTF format
[1 Simulation Settings]
ScenarioName="Bairds Tapir PHVA Baseline" # Scenario name
NumIter="500" # Number of iterations/simulations
NumYears="100" # Number of years
ExtinctDef0="True" # Extinction definition 0 (one of ExtinctDef0 and ExtinctDef1 *must* be FALSE and the other must be TRUE)
ExtinctDef1="False" # Extinction definition 1
CriticalSize="30000" # Critical size
NumPop="1" # Number of populations
[1 Species Description]
InbreedDepress="1" # Inbreeding depression?
LethalEquiv="3.14" # Lethal equivalents
PercentLethal="50" # Percent due to recessive lethals
EVConcord="0" # EV concordance?
NumCatast="0" # Number of types of catastrophes
EV="0.5" # EV Correlation
DispYoung="1" # Lower age for dispersal
DispOld="5" # Upper age for dispersal
DispFemales="1" # Females disperse?
DispMales="1" # Males disperse?
PercentDispSurvive="50" # % survival of dispersers
DensDispersal=Empty # Minimum density for dispersal
[1 Population Labels]
NumPopStateVars="0" # Num Population State Vars?
PopLabels={"Población1"} # Population Labels
OutbreakModelLink="0" # Link to Outbreak?
OutbreakFileLink=Empty # Outbreak project file
SpatialModelLink="0" # Link to Spatial?
SpatialFileLink=Empty # Spatial project file
SpatialSteps="0" # Num Spatial steps
NumIndivStateVars="0" # Num Individual State Vars?
IndivStateVars={Empty;Empty;Empty;Empty} # Individual State Vars
NumMetaModelLinks="0" # Num Meta Model Links?
OtherMetaModels={Empty;Empty;Empty} # Other Meta Models
[1 Dispersal Rates]
DispRates={"100";Empty: Empty;"100"} # Dispersal rates
[1 Reproductive System]
Monogamous="True" # Monogamous?
Polygamous="False" # Polygamous?
Hermaphroditic="False" # Hermaphroditic?
LTMonogamous="False" # Long Term Monogamous?
LTPolygamous="False" # Long Term Polygamous?
AgeReproF="3" # Age of first reproduction for females
AgeReproM="3" # Age of first reproduction for males
AgeRepro="20" # Maximum age of reproduction
MaxProgeny="1" # Maximum number progeny per year
SexRatio="50" # Sex Ratio
ReproSys={"False": Empty: Empty: Empty: Empty} # Density dependent reproduction
[1 Reproductive Rates]
RepRates1={"45": "10"} # % Adult Females Breeding / EV in % Breeding
UseMean0="False" # Use mean and SD?
UseMean1="True" # Use mean and SD?
RepRates2={Empty: Empty} # Mean/Standard Deviation
RepRates3={"100"} # Full specification [1-n Offspring]
[1 Mortality]
MortFemales={"10": "2": "15": "2": "20": "5": "7": "2"} # Females
MortMales={"10": "2": "15": "2": "25": "5": "7": "2"} # Males
[1 Catastrophes]
CatastropheLabels={Empty;Empty}
Catastrophes1={Empty: Empty: Empty: Empty}
Catastrophes2={Empty: Empty: Empty: Empty}
[1 Monopolization]
DegMonop={"90": Empty: Empty} # % Males in Breeding Pool / % Males Successfully Siring Offspring / % Mean # Offspring/Successful Sire
[1 Initial Population Size]
StartWith0="True" # Stable age distribution? 0
StartWith1="False" # Stable age distribution? 1
InitPopStable={"100"} # Initial population size
InitPopFemale={"7": "6": "5": "4": "4": "3": "3": "3": "2": "2": "2": "2": "1": "2": "1": "1": "1": "1": "0": "1"} # Female ages
InitPopMale={"7": "6": "5": "4": "3": "3": "3": "2": "3": "2": "1": "2": "1": "2": "1": "1": "1": "0": "1": "1"} # Male ages
[1 Carrying Capacity]
CarryingCap1={"200": "0"} # Carrying Capacity (k) / SD in K Due to EV
CarryingCap2={"False": Empty: Empty} # Trend in K? / Over how many years? / % annual increase decrease?
[1 Harvest]
Harvest={"False": Empty: Empty: Empty: Empty} # Harvest Population? / First Year of Harvest / Last Year of Harvest / Interval Between Harvests
HarvestF={Empty: Empty: Empty} # Female harvest [Age 1-n harvested]
HarvestM={Empty: Empty: Empty} # Male harvest [Age 1-n harvested]
[1 Supplementation]
Suppl={"False": Empty: Empty: Empty: Empty} # Supplement Population? / First Year of Supplement / Last Year of Supplement / Interval Between Supplements
SupplF={Empty: Empty: Empty} # Female Supplement [Age 1-n Supplemented]
SupplM={Empty: Empty: Empty} # Male Supplement [Age 1-n Supplemented]
[1 Genetic Management]
ImportStudbookFile="0" # ImportStudbookFile?
StudbookFile=Empty # StudbookFile?
NumNeutralLoci="1" # NumNeutralLoci?
ImportAlleleFreqsFile="0" # ImportAlleleFreqsFile?
AlleleFreqsFile=Empty # AlleleFreqsFile?
BreedMaintainK="0" # BreedMaintainK?
PreventMatingsF="0" # PreventMatingsF?
PreventMatingsFValue="0.125" # PreventMatingsFValue?
PairMeanKinship="0" # PairMeanKinship?
PairMeanKinshipDynamic="True" # PairMeanKinshipDynamic?
PairMeanKinshipStatic="False" # PairMeanKinshipStatic?
MaxNumMates=Empty # MaxNumMates?
PairingLimitation=Empty # PairingLimitation?
NumTriesFindMate=Empty # NumTriesFindMate?
OutputGenePop="0" # OutputGenePop?
OutputAlleleFreqFile="0" # OutputAlleleFreqFile?